Marcel Duchamp (28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968, pronounced [maʀsɛl dyˈʃɑ̃]) was a French artist whose work is most often associated with the Dadaist and Surrealist movements. Duchamp's output influenced the development of post-World War I Western art. He advised modern art collectors, such as Peggy Guggenheim and other prominent figures, thereby helping to shape the tastes of Western art during this period.
A playful man, Duchamp challenged conventional thought about
artistic processes and art marketing, not so much by writing, but
through subversive actions such as dubbing a urinal "art" and naming it
Fountain. He produced relatively few artworks, while moving quickly through the avant-garde circles of his time.
The creative act is not performed by the artist alone; the spectator
brings the work in contact with the external world by deciphering and
interpreting its inner qualifications and thus adds his contribution to
the creative act.
Marcel Duchamp was born in Blainville-Crevon Seine-Maritime in the Haute-Normandie region of France, and grew up in a family that enjoyed cultural activities. The art of painter and engraver Emile Nicolle, his maternal grandfather, filled the house, and the family liked to play chess, read books, paint and make music together.
The Duchamp brothers: Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Villon and Raymond Duchamp-Villon. (Smithsonian Institution collections.)
Of Eugene and Lucie Duchamp's seven children, one died as an infant
and four became successful artists. Marcel Duchamp was the brother of:
As a child, with his two older brothers already away from home at
school in Rouen, Duchamp was close to his sister Suzanne, who was a
willing accomplice in games and activities conjured by his fertile
imagination. At 10 years old, Duchamp followed in his brothers'
footsteps when he left home and began schooling at the Lycée Corneille
in Rouen. For the next 7 years, he was locked into an educational
regime which focused on intellectual development. Though he was not an
outstanding student, his best subject was mathematics, and he won two
mathematics prizes at the school. He also won a prize for drawing in
1903, and at his commencement in 1904 he won a coveted first prize,
validating his recent decision to become an artist.
He took drawing classes, and learned academic drawing from a teacher who unsuccessfully attempted to protect his students from Impressionism, Post-Impressionism
and other avant-garde influences. However, Duchamp's true artistic
mentor was his brother Jacques Villon, whose fluid and incisive style
he sought to imitate. At 14, his first serious art attempts were
drawings and watercolors depicting Suzanne Duchamp in various poses and
activities. That summer he also painted landscapes in an Impressionist
style using oils.
 Early work
Duchamp's early art works align with Post-Impressionist styles. He experimented with classical techniques and subjects, as well as with Cubism and Fauvism. When he was later asked about what had influenced him at the time, Duchamp cited the work of Symbolist painter Odilon Redon, whose approach to art was not outwardly anti-academic, but quietly individual.
He studied art at the Académie Julian
from 1904 to 1905, but preferred playing billiards to attending
classes. During this time Duchamp drew and sold cartoons which
reflected his ribald humor. Many of the drawings use visual and/or
verbal puns. Such play with words and symbols engaged his imagination for the rest of his life.
In 1905 he began his compulsory military service, working for a printer in Rouen. There he learned typography and printing processes – skills he would use in his later work.
Due to his brother Jacques Villon's membership in the prestigious Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture Duchamp's work was exhibited in the 1908 Salon d'Automne. The following year his work was featured in the Salon des Indépendants. Of Duchamp's pieces in the show, critic Guillaume Apollinaire
criticized what he called "Duchamp's very ugly nudes", though the two
were to become friends. Duchamp also became life-long friends with
exuberant artist Francis Picabia
after meeting him at the 1911 Salon d' Automne, and Picabia proceeded
to introduce him to a lifestyle of fast cars and 'high' living.
In 1911 at his eldest brother Jacques Villon's home in Puteaux the Duchamp brothers hosted a regular discussion group with other artists and writers including Picabia, Robert Delaunay, Fernand Léger, Roger de la Fresnaye, Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Juan Gris, and Alexander Archipenko. The group came to be known as the Puteaux Group, and the artists' work was dubbed Orphic cubism.
Uninterested in the Cubists' seriousness or in their focus on visual
matters, Duchamp did not join in discussions of Cubist theory, and
gained a reputation of being shy. However, that same year he painted in
a Cubist style, and added an impression of motion by using repetitive
During this period Duchamp's fascination with transition, change,
movement and distance became manifest, and like many artists of the
time, he was intrigued with the concept of depicting a "Fourth dimension" in art.
Works from this period included his first "machine" painting, Coffee Mill (Moulin à café) (1911), which he gave to his brother Raymond Duchamp-Villon. The Coffee Mill shows similarity to the "grinder" mechanism of the Large Glass he was to paint years later.
In his 1911 Portrait of Chess Players (Portrait de joueurs d'echecs)
there is the Cubist overlapping frames and multiple perspectives of his
two brothers playing chess, but to that Duchamp added elements
conveying the unseen mental activity of the players. (Notably, "échec"
is French for "failure".)
 Nude Descending a Staircase No.2
Duchamp's first work to provoke significant controversy was Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 (Nu descendant un escalier n° 2) (1912). The painting depicts the mechanistic motion of a nude, with superimposed facets, similar to motion pictures. It shows elements of both the fragmentation and synthesis of the Cubists, and the movement and dynamism of the Futurists.
He first submitted the piece to appear at the Cubist Salon des Indépendants, but jurist Albert Gleizes
asked Duchamp's brothers to have him voluntarily withdraw the painting,
or to paint over the title that he had painted on the work and rename
it something else. Duchamp's brothers did approach him with Gleizes'
request, but Duchamp quietly refused. Of the incident Duchamp later
recalled, "I said nothing to my brothers. But I went immediately to the
show and took my painting home in a taxi. It was really a turning point
in my life, I can assure you. I saw that I would not be very much
interested in groups after that."
He later submitted the painting to the 1913 "Armory Show"
in New York City. The exhibition was officially named the International
Exhibition of Modern Art, displayed works of American artists, and was
also the first major exhibition of modern trends coming out of Paris.
American show-goers, accustomed to realistic art, were scandalized, and
the Nude was at the center of much of the controversy.
 Leaving "retinal art" behind
At about this time, Duchamp read Max Stirner's philosophical tract, The Ego and Its Own,
the study of which he considered another turning point in his artistic
and intellectual development. He called it "...a remarkable book ...
which advances no formal theories, but just keeps saying that the ego
is always there in everything."
Duchamp also noted the stage adaptation of Raymond Roussel's 1910 novel, Impressions d'Afrique
which featured plots that turned in on themselves, word play,
surrealistic sets and humanoid machines. He credited the drama with
having radically changed his approach to art, and having inspired him
to begin the creation of his The Bride Stripped Bare By Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass).
While in Germany in 1912 he painted the last of his Cubist-like
paintings and a "Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors" image, and began
making plans for the Large Glass
— scribbling short notes to himself, sometimes with hurried sketches.
It would be over 10 years before this piece was completed. Little else
is known about the two-month stay in Germany except that the friend he
visited was intent on showing him the sights and the nightlife.
Later that year he travelled with Picabia, Apollinaire and Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia through the Jura mountains,
an adventure that Buffet-Picabia described as one of their "forays of
demoralization, which were also forays of witticism and clownery ...
the disintegration of the concept of art." Duchamp's notes from the
trip avoid logic and sense, and have a surrealistic, mythical
Duchamp painted few canvases after 1912, and in those he did, he attempted to remove "painterly" effects, and instead to use a technical drawing approach.
His broad interests led him to an exhibition of aviation technology during this period, after which Duchamp said to his friend Constantin Brancusi,
"Painting is washed up. Who will ever do anything better than that
propeller? Tell me, can you do that?" Brancusi later sculpted bird forms, which U.S. Customs officials mistook for aviation parts and for which they attempted to collect import duties.
During this decade Duchamp began working as a librarian in the
Bibliotèque Sainte-Geneviève, where he earned a living wage and
withdrew from painting circles into scholarly realms. He studied math
and physics – areas in which exciting new discoveries were taking
place. The theoretical writings of Henri Poincaré
particularly intrigued and inspired Duchamp. Poincaré postulated that
the laws believed to govern matter were created solely by the minds
that "understood" them and that no theory could be considered "true."
"The things themselves are not what science can reach..., but only the
relations between things. Outside of these relations there is no
knowable reality", Poincaré wrote in 1902.
Duchamp's own art-science experiments began during his tenure at the library. To make one of his favorite pieces, 3 Standard Stoppages (3 stoppages étalon),
he dropped three 1-meter lengths of thread onto prepared canvases, one
at a time, from a height of 1 meter. The threads landed in three random
undulating positions. He varnished them into place on the blue-black
canvas strips and attached them to glass. He then cut three wood slats
into the shapes of the curved strings, and put all the pieces into a
croquet box. Three small leather signs with the title printed in gold
were glued to each of the "stoppage" backgrounds. The piece appears to
literally follow Poincaré's School of the Thread, part of a book on classical mechanics.
Work on The Large Glass
continued into 1913, with his invention of inventing a repertoire of
forms. He made notes, sketches and painted studies, and even drew some
of his ideas on the wall of his apartment.
In his studio he mounted a bicycle wheel upside down onto a stool,
spinning it occasionally just to watch it. Later he denied that its
creation was purposeful, though it has come to be known as the first of
his "Readymades". "I enjoyed looking at it", he said. "Just as I enjoy looking at the flames dancing in the fireplace."
Meanwhile, Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2 scandalized Americans at the Armory Show, and the sale of all four of his paintings in the show financed his trip to America in 1915.
After World War I
was declared in 1914, with his brothers and many friends in military
service and himself exempted, Duchamp felt uncomfortable in Paris. He
decided to emigrate to the then-neutral United States. To his surprise,
he found he was a celebrity when he arrived in New York in 1915, where
he quickly befriended art patron Katherine Dreier and artist Man Ray. Duchamp's circle included art patrons Louise and Walter Conrad Arensberg, actress and artist Beatrice Wood and Francis Picabia, as well as other avant-garde
figures. Though he spoke little English, in the course of supporting
himself by giving French lessons and through some library work, he
quickly learned the language.
For two years the Arensbergs, who would remain his friends and
patrons for 42 years, were the landlords of his studio. In lieu of
rent, they agreed that his payment would be The Large Glass. An
art gallery offered Duchamp $10,000 per year in exchange for all of his
yearly production, but Duchamp declined the offer, preferring to work
on The Large Glass.
 Société Anonyme
Duchamp created the Société Anonyme in 1920, along with Katherine Dreier and Man Ray.
This was the beginning of his life-long involvement in art dealing and
collecting. The group collected modern art works, and arranged modern
art exhibitions and lectures throughout the 1930s.
By this time Walter Pach, one of the coordinators of the 1913 Armory Show,
sought Duchamp's advice on modern art. Beginning with Société Anonyme,
Dreier also depended on Duchamp's counsel in gathering her collection,
as did Arensberg. Later Peggy Guggenheim, Museum of Modern Art directors Alfred Barr and James Johnson Sweeney consulted with Duchamp on their modern art collections and shows.
New York Dada had a less serious tone than that of European Dadaism, and was not a particularly organized venture. Duchamp's friend Picabia
connected with the Dada group in Zürich, bringing to New York the
Dadaist ideas of absurdity and "anti-art". A group met almost nightly
at the Arensberg home, or caroused in Greenwich Village. Together with Man Ray, Duchamp contributed his ideas and humor to the New York activities, many of which ran concurrent with the development of his Readymades and The Large Glass. They also worked on the concept of "found art".
The most prominent example of Duchamp's association with Dada was his submission of Fountain, a urinal, to the Society of Independent Artists
exhibit in 1917. Artworks in the Independent Artists shows were not
selected by jury, and all pieces submitted were displayed. However, the
show committee insisted that Fountain was not art, and rejected
it from the show. This caused an uproar amongst the Dadaists, and led
Duchamp to resign from the board of the Independent Artists.
Along with Henri-Pierre Roché and Beatrice Wood, Duchamp published a Dada magazine in New York, entitled The Blind Man, which included art, literature, humor and commentary.
When he returned to Paris after World War I, Duchamp did not participate in the Dada group.
"Readymades" were found objects which Duchamp chose and presented as art. The first such object was Bicycle Wheel,
an inverted bicycle wheel mounted on a stool, which Duchamp assembled
in 1913. However, he did not coin the term "readymade" until 1915.
It is necessary to arrive at selecting an object with the idea of
not being impressed by this object on the basis of enjoyment of any
order. However, it is difficult to select an object that absolutely
does not interest you, not only on the day on which you select it, and
which does not have any chance of becoming attractive or beautiful and
which is neither pleasant to look at nor particularly ugly. (Marcel
Bottle Rack (1914), a bottle drying rack signed by Duchamp, is considered to be the first "pure" readymade. Prelude to a Broken Arm (1915), a snow shovel, followed soon after. His Fountain, a urinal signed with the pseudonym "R. Mutt", shocked the art world in 1917. Fountain was selected in 2004 as "the most influential artwork of the 20th century" by 500 renowned artists and historians.
In 1919, Duchamp made a parody of the Mona Lisa by adorning a cheap reproduction of the painting with a mustache and goatee. To this he added the rude inscription L.H.O.O.Q., a pun which, when read out loud in French, sounds like "Elle a chaud au cul".
This can be translated as "She has a hot ass", implying that the woman
in the painting is in a state of sexual excitement and availability. It
may also have been intended as a Freudian joke, referring to Leonardo da Vinci's alleged homosexuality.
According to Rhonda Roland Shearer, the apparent Mona Lisa reproduction is in fact a copy modeled partly on Duchamp's own face.
Research published by Shearer also speculates that Duchamp himself may
have created some of the objects which he claimed to have been "found".
 The Large Glass
Duchamp carefully created a masterpiece, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass),
working on the piece from 1915 to 1923, with the exception of periods
in Buenos Aires and Paris in 1918 - 1920. He executed the work on two
panes of glass with materials such as lead foil, fuse wire, and dust.
It combines chance procedures, plotted perspective studies, and
laborious craftsmanship. His notes for the piece, published as The Green Box,
reflect the creation of unique rules of physics, and a mythology which
describes the work. He stated that his "hilarious picture" is intended
to depict the erratic encounter between a bride and her nine bachelors.
Until 1969 when the Philadelphia Museum of Art revealed Duchamp's Etant donnés tableau, The Large Glass was thought to have been his last major work.
 Kinetic works
Duchamp's interest in kinetic works can be discerned as early as the notes for The Large Glass and the Bicycle Wheel readymade, and despite losing interest in "retinal art", he retained interest in visual phenomena.
In 1920, with help from Man Ray, Duchamp built a motorized sculpture, Rotative plaques verre, optique de précision
("Rotary Glass Plates, Precision Optics"). The piece, which he did not
consider to be art, involved a motor to spin pieces of rectangular
glass on which were painted segments of a circle. When the apparatus
spins, an optical illusion occurs, in which the segments appear to be
closed concentric circles. (Animation of Rotary Glass Plates)
set up equipment to photograph the initial experiment, but when they
turned the machine on for the second time, a belt broke, and caught a
piece of the glass, which after glancing off of Man Ray's head,
shattered into bits. 
After moving back to Paris in 1923, at André Breton's urging and through the financing of Jacques Doucet, Duchamp built another optical device based on the first one - Rotative Demisphère, optique de précision (Rotary Demisphere, Precision Optics).
This time the optical element was a globe cut in half, with black
concentric circles painted on it. When it spins, the circles appear to
move backwards and forwards in space. Duchamp asked that Doucet not
exhibit the apparatus as art. 
Rotoreliefs were the next phase of Duchamp's spinning works.
To make the optical "play toys" he painted designs on flat cardboard
circles and spun them on a phonographic turntable. When spinning, the
flat disks appeared three-dimensional. He had a printer produce 500
sets of six of the designs, and set up a booth at a 1935 Paris
inventors' show to sell them. The venture was a financial disaster, but
some optical scientists thought they might be of use in restoring
three-dimensional stereoscopic sight to people who have lost vision one
eye.  (Animated display of the Rotoreliefs)
In collaboration with Man Ray and Marc Allégret, Duchamp filmed early versions of the Rotoreliefs and they named the film Anémic Cinéma (1926).
Later, in Alexander Calder's studio in 1931, while looking at the sculptor's kinetic works, Duchamp suggested that these should be called"mobiles". Calder agreed to use this novel term in his upcoming show. To this day, sculptures of this type are called "mobiles".
 Rrose Sélavy
"Rrose Sélavy", also spelled Rose Sélavy, was one of Duchamp's pseudonyms. The name, a pun,
sounds like the French phrase "Eros, c'est la vie", which may be
translated as "Eros, such is life". It has also been read as "arroser
la vie" ("to make a toast to life").
Sélavy emerged in 1921 in a series of photographs by Man Ray
showing Duchamp dressed as a woman. Through the 1920s Man Ray and
Duchamp collaborated on more photos of Sélavy. Duchamp later used the
name as the byline on written material and signed several creations
with it. These included at least one sculpture, Why Not Sneeze Rrose Sélavy?. The sculpture, a type of readymade called an assemblage, consists of an oral thermometer, and several dozen small cubes of marble resembling sugar cubes inside a birdcage.
The inspiration for the name "Rrose Sélavy" may have been Belle da Costa Greene, J.P. Morgan's librarian of the Pierpont Morgan Library.
Following the death of J.P. Morgan, Sr., Greene became the Library's
director, working there for a total of forty-three years. Empowered by
the Morgans, she built the library collection, buying and selling rare manuscripts, books and art.
 Transition from art to chess
In 1918 Duchamp made a hiatus from the New York art scene, interrupting his work on the Large Glass, and went to Buenos Aires, Argentina. He remained for nine months and often played chess. He even carved from wood his own chess set, with the assistance of a local craftsman who made the knights.
He moved to Paris in 1919, and then back to the United States in 1920.
Upon his return to Paris in 1923, Duchamp was, in essence, no longer a
practicing artist. Instead, he played chess, which he studied for the rest of his life to the exclusion of most other activities.
Duchamp can be seen, very briefly, playing chess with Man Ray in the short film Entr'acte (1924) by Rene Clair.
He designed the 1925 Poster for the Third French Chess Championship,
and as a competitor in the event, finished at fifty percent (3-3, with
two draws). Thus he earned the title of chess master. During this period his fascination with chess so distressed his first wife that she glued his pieces to the board. Duchamp continued to play in the French Championships and also in the Olympiads from 1928-1933, favoring hypermodern openings such as the Nimzo-Indian.
Sometime in the early 1930s, Duchamp reached the height of his
ability, but realized that he had little chance of winning recognition
in top-level chess. In following years, his participation in chess
tournaments declined, but he discovered correspondence chess
and became a chess journalist, writing weekly newspaper columns. While
his contemporaries were achieving spectacular success in the art world
by selling their works to high-society collectors, Duchamp observed "I
am still a victim of chess. It has all the beauty of art - and much
more. It cannot be commercialized. Chess is much purer than art in its social position."
In 1932 Duchamp teamed with chess theorist Vitaly Halberstadt
to publish "L'opposition et cases conjuguées sont réconciliées"
(Opposition and Sister Squares are Reconciled). This treatise describes
the Lasker-Reichhelm position, an extremely rare position that can arise in the endgame. Using enneagram-like charts that fold upon themselves, the authors demonstrated that in this position, the most Black can hope for is a draw.
The theme of the "endgame" is important to an understanding of
Duchamp's complex attitude towards his artistic career. Irish
playwright Samuel Beckett was an associate of Duchamp, and used the theme as the narrative device for the 1957 play of the same name, "Endgame". In 1968, Duchamp played an artistically important chess match with avant-garde composer John Cage,
at a concert entitled "Reunion". Music was produced by a series of
photoelectric cells underneath the chessboard, triggered sporadically
by normal game play.
On choosing a career in chess, Duchamp said: "If Bobby Fischer
came to me for advice, I certainly would not discourage him - as if
anyone could - but I would try to make it positively clear that he will
never have any money from chess, live a monk-like existence and know
more rejection than any artist ever has, struggling to be known and
accepted." Duchamp left a legacy to chess in the form of an enigmatic
endgame problem he composed in 1943. The problem was included in the
announcement for Julian Lev's gallery exhibition "Through the Big End
of the Opera Glass", printed on translucent paper with the faint
inscription: "White to play and win." Grandmasters and endgame
specialists have since grappled with the problem, with most concluding
that there is no solution.
 Artistic involvement and marriages
Although Duchamp was no longer considered to be an active artist, he
continued to consult with artists, art dealers and collectors, From
1925 he often travelled between France and the United States, and made
New York's Greenwich Village his home in 1942.
In June 1927, Duchamp married Lydie Sarazin-Lavassor, however, they
divorced six months later. It was rumored that Duchamp had chosen a
marriage of convenience, because Sarazin-Lavassor was the daughter of a
wealthy automobile manufacturer. Early in January 1928, Duchamp said
that he could no longer bear the responsibility and confinement of
marriage, and soon thereafter they were divorced. 
From the mid-1930s onwards, he collaborated with the Surrealists, however, he did not join the movement despite the coaxing of André Breton. From then until 1944, together with Max Ernst, Eugenio Granell and Breton, Duchamp edited the Surrealist periodical VVV, and also served as an advisory editor for the magazine View, which featured him in its March 1945 edition, thus introducing him to a broader American audience.
In 1954, he and Alexina "Teeny" Sattler married, and they remained together until his death. Duchamp became a United States citizen in 1955.
His influence on the art world remained behind the scenes until the
late 1950s, when he was "discovered" by young artists such as Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns, who were eager to escape the dominance of Abstract Expressionism.
Interest in Duchamp was reignited in the 1960s, and he gained
international public recognition. 1963 saw his first retrospective
exhibition at the Pasadena Art Museum, and in 1966 the Tate Gallery hosted a large exhibit of his work. Other major institutions, including the Philadelphia Art Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art,
followed, with large showings of Duchamp's work. He was invited to
lecture on art and to participate in formal discussions, as well as
sitting for interviews with major publications.
As the last surviving member of the Duchamp family of artists, in
1967 Duchamp helped to organize an exhibition in Rouen, France, called
"Les Duchamp: Jacques Villon, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Marcel Duchamp,
Suzanne Duchamp." Parts of this family exhibition were later shown
again at the Musée National d'Art Moderne in Paris.
 Exhibition design
Duchamp was the designer of the 1938 International Surrealist
Exhibition, which was held at the Gallerie des Beaux-arts, Paris. The
show featured more than 60 artists from different countries, including
approximately 300 paintings, objects, collages, photographs and
The surrealists wanted to create an exhibition which in itself would
be a creative act, and called on Duchamp to do so. At the exhibition's
entrance he placed Salvador Dalí's Rainy Taxi
This work consisted of a taxicab rigged to produce a drizzle of water
down the inside of the windows, a shark-headed creature in the driver's
seat, and a blond mannequin crawling with live snails in the back. In
this way Duchamp greeted entering patrons, who were in full evening
Surrealist Street filled one side of the lobby with
mannequins dressed by various surrealists. The main hall was a
simulation of a dark subterranean cave with 1,200 coal bags suspended
from the ceiling. Illumination was provided only by a single light bulb, so patrons were given flashlights with which to view the art.
An installation by Wolfgang Paalen
was composed of oak leaves and a water-filled pond with water lilies
and reeds, and the aroma of roasting coffee filled the air. Around
midnight, the visitors witnessed the dancing shimmer of a sparsely
dressed girl who suddenly arose from the reed, jumped on a bed,
shrieked hysterically, then disappeared just as quickly. Much to the
surrealists' satisfaction the exhibition scandalized the viewers.
In 1942, for the First Papers of Surrealism show in New York,
surrealists again called on Duchamp to design the exhibition. This time
he wove a three-dimensional web of string throughout the rooms of the
space, in some cases making it almost impossible to see the works.
Duchamp made a secret arrangement with an associate's son to bring
young friends to the opening of the show. When the finely dressed
patrons arrived, they found a dozen children in athletic clothes
kicking and passing balls, and skipping rope. Duchamp's design of the
catalog for the show included "found", rather than posed, photographs
of the artists.
 Etant donnés
Duchamp's final major art work surprised the art world that believed he had given up art for chess 25 years earlier. Entitled Etant donnés: 1° la chute d'eau / 2° le gaz d'éclairage ("Given: 1. The Waterfall, 2. The Illuminating Gas"), it is a tableau, visible only through a peep hole in a wooden door.A
nude woman can be seen lying on her back with her face hidden, legs
spread, and one hand holding a gas lamp in the air against a landscape
backdrop. Duchamp had worked secretly on the piece from 1946 to 1966 in his Greenwich Village studio while even his closest friends thought he had abandoned art.
 Death and burial
Marcel Duchamp died on October 2, 1968 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, and is buried in the Rouen Cemetery, in Rouen, France. His grave bears the epitaph, "D'ailleurs, c'est toujours les autres qui meurent;" or "Besides, it's always other people who die."
A quotation erroneously attributed to Duchamp suggests a negative attitude toward later trends in 20th-century art:
This Neo-Dada, which they call New Realism, Pop Art, Assemblage,
etc., is an easy way out, and lives on what Dada did. When I discovered
the ready-mades I sought to discourage aesthetics. In Neo-Dada they
have taken my readymades and found aesthetic beauty in them, I threw
the bottle-rack and the urinal into their faces as a challenge and now
they admire them for their aesthetic beauty.
However, this was actually written in 1961 by fellow Dadaist Hans Richter,
in the second person, i.e. "You threw the bottle-rack...". Although a
marginal note in the letter suggests that Duchamp generally approved of
the statement, Richter did not make the distinction clear until many
Duchamp's attitude was actually more favorable, as evidenced by another statement made in 1964:
Pop Art is a return to "conceptual" painting, virtually abandoned, except by the Surrealists, since Courbet,
in favour of retinal painting... If you take a Campbell soup can and
repeat it 50 times, you are not interested in the retinal image. What
interests you is the concept that wants to put 50 Campbell soup cans on
The Prix Marcel Duchamp (Marcel Duchamp Prize), established in 2000, is an annual award given to a young artist by the Centre Georges Pompidou. In 2004, as a testimony to the legacy of Duchamp's work to the art world, his Fountain was voted "most influential artwork of the 20th century" by a panel of prominent artists and art historians.
 See also
 Selected works
 Notes and references
- ^ Tomkins: Duchamp: A Biography.
- ^ Marcel Duchamp, from Session on the Creative Act, Convention of the American Federation of Arts, Houston, Texas, April 1957.
- ^ Tomkins: Duchamp: A Biography, pages 181-186.
- ^ "Duchamp's urinal tops art survey", BBC news 1 December 2004.
- ^ Marting, Marco De (2003). "Mona Lisa: Who is Hidden Behind the Woman with the Mustache?". Art Science Research Laboratory. http://www.artscienceresearchlab.org/articles/panorama.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- ^ Tomkins: Duchamp: A Biography, pages 227-228.
- ^ Tomkins: Duchamp: A Biography, pages 254-255.
- ^ Tomkins: Duchamp: A Biography, pages 301-303.
- ^ Tomkins: Duchamp: A Biography, pages 294.
- ^ "Becoming Duchamp" by Sylvère Lotringer
- ^ Beliavsky, A & Mikhalchishin, A: Winning Endgame Technique Batsford, 1995.
- ^ Hulten, Pontus. Marcel Duchamp, Work and Life: Ephemerides on and about Marcel Duchamp and Rrose Selavy, 1887-1968. Pages 8-9 June (1927) to 25 January (1928). ISBN 0-262-08225-X.
- ^ "(Ab)Using Marcel Duchamp: The Concept of the Readymade in Post-War and Contemporary American Art" by Thomas Girst at toutfait.com, Issue 5 2003)
- Tomkins, Calvin: Duchamp: A Biography, Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1996. ISBN 0-8050-5789-7
- Seigel, Jerrold: The Private Worlds of Marcel Duchamp, University of California Press, 1995. ISBN 0-520-20038-1
- Hulten, Pontus (editor): Marcel Duchamp: Work and Life, The MIT Press, 1993. ISBN 0-262-08225-X
- Yves Arman: Marcel Duchamp plays and wins, Marcel Duchamp joue et gagne, Marval Press, 1984
- Cabanne, Pierre: Dialogs with Marcel Duchamp, Da Capo Press, Inc., 1979 (1969 in French), ISBN 0-306-80303-8
- Duchamp Bottles Belle Greene: Just Desserts For His Canning by Bonnie Jean Garner (with text boxes by Stephen Jay Gould)
- Gibson, Michael: Duchamp-Dada, (in French, Nouvelles Editions
Françaises-Casterman, 1990) International Art Book Award of the Vasari
Prize in 1991.
- Sanouillet, Michel and Peterson, Elner, The Writings of Marcel Duchamp. NY: Da Capo Press, 1989. ISBN 0-306-80341-0
- Catherine Perret Marcel Duchamp, le manieur de gravité, Ed. CNDP, Paris, 1998
 External links
Essays by Duchamp
- Marcel Duchamp: The Creative Act (1957) Text Audio
Essays about Duchamp
- Marc Décimo: Marcel Duchamp mis à nu. A propos du processus créatif (Marcel Duchamp Stripped Bare. Apropos of the creative Act), Les presses du réel, Dijon (France), 2004.
- Marc Décimo:The Marcel Duchamp Library, perhaps (La Bibliothèque de Marcel Duchamp, peut-être), Les presses du réel, Dijon (France), 2001.
Lydie Fischer Sarazin-Levassor, A Marriage in Check. The Heart of the Bride Stripped by her Bachelor, even, Les presses du réel, Dijon (France), 2007.
Audio and video
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