Jack Kerouac (pronounced /ˈkɛɹuæk, ˈkɛɹəwæk/; March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American author, poet and painter. Alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, he is considered a pioneer of the Beat Generation.
Kerouac's work was very popular, but received little critical
acclaim during his lifetime. Today, he is considered an important and
influential writer who inspired others, including Hunter S. Thompson, Tom Robbins, Lester Bangs, Richard Brautigan, Ken Kesey, Haruki Murakami, and writers of the New Journalism. Kerouac also influenced musicians such as the Grateful Dead, The Beatles, Bob Dylan, Jim Morrison, Tom Waits, Simon & Garfunkel, The Smiths, Death Cab For Cutie, and Ulf Lundell. Kerouac's best-known books are On the Road, The Dharma Bums, Big Sur, The Subterraneans, and Visions of Cody.
 Family and childhood
Jack Kerouac was born Jean Louis Kerouac, in Lowell, Massachusetts to French-Canadian parents, Léo-Alcide Kerouac and Gabrielle-Ange Lévesque, natives of the province of Quebec, Canada. Like many other Quebecois of their generation, the Lévesques and Kerouacs were part of the Quebec emigration to New England to find employment. His father was related to Brother Marie-Victorin (né Conrad Kirouac), one of Canada's most prominent botanists and his mother was second cousin to future Quebec premier René Lévesque.
Kerouac often gave conflicting stories about his family history and
the origins of his surname. Though his father was born to a family of
potato farmers in the village of St-Hubert, he often claimed aristocratic descent, sometimes from a Breton noble granted land after the Battle of Quebec, whose sons all married Native Americans.
However, research has shown him to be the descendant of a middle-class
merchant settler, whose sons married French Canadians. He was part
Native American through his mother's largely Norman-side
of the family. He also had various stories on the etymology of his
surname, usually tracing it back to Irish, Breton, or other Celtic roots. In one interview he claimed it was the name of a dead Celtic language and in another said it was from the Irish for "language of the water" and related to "Kerwick". The name, though Breton, seems to derive from the name of one of several hamlets in Brittany near Rosporden.
Jack Kerouac lived above this flower shop in Ozone Park.
Kerouac did not start to learn English until the age of six, and at home, he and his family spoke French. When he was four he was profoundly affected by the death of his nine-year-old brother, Gérard, from rheumatic fever, an event later described in his novel Visions of Gerard. Some of Kerouac's poetry was written in French, and in letters written to friend Allen Ginsberg
towards the end of his life he expressed his desire to speak his
parents' native tongue again. Recently, it was discovered that Kerouac
first started writing On the Road in French, a language in which he also wrote two unpublished novels. The writings are in dialectal Quebec French, and predate the first plays of Michel Tremblay by a decade.
Kerouac's athletic prowess led him to become a 100-meter hurdler on
his local high school track team, and his skills as a running back in
American football earned him scholarship offers from Boston College, Notre Dame and Columbia University. He entered Columbia University after spending a year at Horace Mann School,
where he earned the requisite grades to matriculate to Columbia.
Kerouac cracked a tibia playing football during his freshman season,
and he argued constantly with coach Lou Little who kept him benched. While at Columbia, Kerouac wrote several sports articles for the student newspaper, the Columbia Daily Spectator.
 Early adulthood
When his football career at Columbia soured, especially because of
conflict with Lou Little, Kerouac dropped out of the university, though
he continued to live for a period on New York City's Upper West Side with his girlfriend, Edie Parker.
It was during this time that he met the people -- now famous -- with
whom he will always be associated, the subjects injected into many of
his novels: the so-called Beat Generation, including Allen Ginsberg, Neal Cassady, John Clellon Holmes, Herbert Huncke and William S. Burroughs. Kerouac joined the United States Merchant Marine in 1942, and in 1943 joined the United States Navy, but was honorably discharged during World War II on psychiatric grounds (he was of "indifferent character" with a diagnosis of "schizoid personality").
In 1944, Kerouac was arrested as a material witness in the murder of David Kammerer, who'd been stalking Kerouac's friend Lucien Carr
since Carr was a teenager in St. Louis. (William Burroughs was himself
a native of St. Louis, and it was through Carr that Kerouac came to
know both Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg.) When Kammerer's obsession with
Carr turned aggressive, Carr stabbed him to death and turned to Kerouac
for help. Together, they disposed of evidence. As advised by Burroughs,
they turned themselves in. Kerouac's father refused to pay his bail.
Kerouac then agreed to marry Edie Parker
if she'd pay it. Their marriage was annulled a year later, and Kerouac
and Burroughs briefly collaborated on a novel about the Kammerer
killing entitled And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks. Though the book was not published during the lifetimes of either Kerouac or Burroughs, an excerpt eventually appeared in Word Virus: A William S. Burroughs Reader (and as noted below, the novel was finally published late 2008). Kerouac also later wrote about the killing in his novel Vanity of Duluoz.
Beginning of the original typed roll where Kerouac wrote On the Road
The first sentence is: "I first met met Neal not long after my father
died..." Later it would be replaced by the definitive one: "I first met
Dean not long after my wife and I split up".
Later, he lived with his parents in the Ozone Park neighborhood of Queens, after they, too, moved to New York. He wrote his first novel, The Town and the City, and, according to at least John Clellon Holmes, began the famous On the Road around 1949 while living there. His friends jokingly called him "The Wizard of Ozone Park," a spoof of Thomas Edison's "Wizard of Menlo Park" nickname while simultaneously alluding to the title character of the film The Wizard of Oz and a shortened form of the word "ozone".
 Early career 1950-1957
Kerouac tended to write constantly, carrying a notebook with him
everywhere. Letters to friends and family members tended to be long and
rambling, including great detail about his daily life and thoughts.
Prior to becoming a writer, he tried a varied list of careers. He was a
sports reporter for The Lowell Sun; a temporary worker in construction and food service; a United States Merchant Marine and he joined the United States Navy twice.
The Town and the City
was published in 1950 under the name "John Kerouac," and, though it
earned him a few respectable reviews, the book sold poorly. Heavily
influenced by Kerouac's reading of Thomas Wolfe,
it reflects on the generational epic formula and the contrasts of small
town life versus the multi-dimensional, and larger, city. The book was
heavily edited by Robert Giroux; some 400 pages were taken out.
For the next six years, Kerouac wrote constantly. Building upon
previous drafts tentatively titled "The Beat Generation" and "Gone on
the Road," Kerouac wrote what is now known as On the Road in April of 1951 while living at 454 West 20th Street in Manhattan with his second wife, Joan Haverty. The book was largely autobiographical and describes Kerouac's road-trip adventures across the United States and Mexico with Neal Cassady
in the late-40's, as well his relationships with other Beat writers and
friends. He completed the first version of the novel during a three
week extended session of spontaneous confessional prose. Before
beginning, Kerouac cut sheets of tracing paper into
long strips, wide enough for a type-writer, and taped them together
into a 120-foot (37 m) long roll he then fed into the machine.
This allowed him to type continuously without the interruption of
reloading pages. The resulting manuscript contained no chapter or
paragraph breaks and was much more explicit than what would eventually
be printed. Though "spontaneous", Kerouac had prepared long in advance
before beginning to write. In fact, according to his Columbia professor and mentor Mark Van Doren, he had outlined much of the work in his journals over the several preceding years.
Though the work was completed quickly, Kerouac had a long and
difficult time finding a buyer. Publishers rejected the manuscript due
to its experimental writing style and its sympathetic tone towards
minorities and marginalized social groups of post-War America.
Many editors were also uncomfortable with the idea of publishing a book
that contained what were, for the era, graphic descriptions of drug-use
and homosexual behavior, a move that could result in obscenity charges
being filed, a fate that later befell Burroughs' Naked Lunch and Ginsberg's Howl.
In late 1951, Joan Haverty left and divorced Kerouac while pregnant. In February 1952, she gave birth to Kerouac's only child Jan Kerouac, though he refused to acknowledge her as his own until a blood test confirmed it 9 years later.
For the next several years Kerouac continued writing and traveling,
taking extensive trips through out the U.S. and Mexico and often fell
into bouts of depression and heavy drug and alcohol use. During this
period he finished drafts for what would become 10 more novels,
including The Subterraneans, Doctor Sax, Tristessa, and Desolation Angels, which chronicle many of the events of these years.
In 1954, Kerouac discovered Dwight Goddard's A Buddhist Bible at the San Jose Library, which marked the beginning of Kerouac's immersion into Buddhism. In 1955 Kerouac wrote a biography of Siddhartha Gautama, entitled Wake Up, which was unpublished during his lifetime but eventually serialised in Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, 1993-95. It was published by Viking in September 2008. 
In 1957, after being rejected by several other firms, On the Road was finally purchased by Viking Press, which demanded major revisions prior to publication. Many of the more sexually explicit passages were removed and, fearing libel suits, pseudonyms
were used for the books "characters." These revisions have often led to
criticisms as to the actual spontaneity of Kerouac's style.
 Later career 1957-1969
In July 1957, Kerouac moved to a small house at 1418½ Clouser Ave. in the College Park section of Orlando, Florida to await the release of On the Road. A few weeks later, the review appeared in the New York Times
proclaiming Kerouac the voice of a new generation. Kerouac was hailed
as a major American writer. His friendship with Allen Ginsberg, William
S. Burroughs and Gregory Corso,
among others, became a notorious representation of the Beat Generation.
His fame would come as an unmanageable surge that would ultimately be
his undoing. Kerouac's novel is often described as the defining work of
the post-World War II Beat Generation and Kerouac came to be called "the king of the beat generation," a term that he never felt comfortable with. He once observed, "I'm not a beatnik, I'm a Catholic."
The immediate success of On the Road brought Kerouac instant
fame. He soon found he had little taste for celebrity status. After
nine months, he no longer felt safe in public. He was badly beaten by
three men outside the San Remo Bar in New York one night. Neal Cassady,
possibly as a result of his new notoriety as the central character of
the book, was set up and arrested for selling pot.
Publishers were eager for a quick "sequel" to capitalize on On the Road's success. In response, Kerouac chronicled parts of his own experience with Buddhism, as well as some of his adventures with Gary Snyder and other San Francisco-area poets, in The Dharma Bums, set in California and Washington and published in 1958. It was written in Orlando, Florida between November 26 and December 7, 1957. To begin writing Dharma Bums,
Kerouac typed onto a ten-foot length of teletype paper, to avoid
interrupting his flow for paper changes, as he had done six years
previously for On the Road.
Kerouac was demoralized by criticism of Dharma Bums from such respected figures in the American field of Buddhism as Zen teacher Ruth Fuller Sasaki and Alan Watts. He wrote to Snyder, referring to a meeting with D. T. Suzuki,
that "even Suzuki was looking at me through slitted eyes as tho I was a
monstrous imposter". He passed up the opportunity to reunite with
Snyder in California, and explained to Whalen, "I'd be ashamed to
confront you and Gary now I've become so decadent and drunk and
dontgiveashit. I'm not a Buddhist any more."
Kerouac also wrote and narrated a "Beat" movie entitled Pull My Daisy in 1959. Originally to be called "The Beat Generation", the title was changed at the last moment when MGM released a film by the same name which sensationalized "beatnik" culture.
John Antonelli's 1985 documentary Kerouac, the Movie begins and ends with footage of Kerouac reading from On the Road and Visions of Cody on The Tonight Show with Steve Allen in 1957. Kerouac appears intelligent but shy. "Are you nervous?" asks Steve Allen. "Naw", says Kerouac, sweating and fiddling.
Kerouac developed something of a friendship with the scholar Alan Watts (cryptically named Arthur Wayne in Kerouac's novel Big Sur, and Alex Aums in Desolation Angels). Kerouac moved to Northport, New York in March 1958, six months after releasing On the Road, to care for his aging mother Gabrielle and to hide from his new-found celebrity status.
Kerouac died on October 21, 1969 at St. Anthony's Hospital in St. Petersburg, Florida, one day after being rushed with severe abdominal pain from his St. Petersburg home by ambulance.
His death, at the age of 47, resulted from an internal hemorrhage (bleeding esophageal varices) caused by cirrhosis, the result of a lifetime of heavy drinking.
At the time of his death, he was living with his third wife Stella, and
his mother Gabrielle. Kerouac is buried in his home town of Lowell
and was honored posthumously with a Doctor of Letters degree from his
hometown's University of Massachusetts Lowell on June 2, 2007.
In 2007, to coincide with the 50th anniversary of On the Road's publishing, Viking issued two new editions: On the Road: The Original Scroll, and On the Road: 50th Anniversary Edition. By far the more significant is Scroll,
a transcription of the original draft typed as one long paragraph on
sheets of tracing paper which Kerouac taped together to form a 120-foot
(37 m) scroll. The text is more sexually explicit than Viking
allowed to be published in 1957, and also uses the real names of
Kerouac's friends rather than the fictional names he later substituted.
Indianapolis Colts owner Jim Irsay
paid $2.43 million for the original scroll and is allowing an
exhibition tour that will conclude at the end of 2009. The other new
issue, 50th Anniversary Edition, is a reissue of the 40th anniversary issue under an updated title.
In March 2008, Penguin Books announced that the Kerouac/Burroughs manuscript, And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks will be published for the first time in November 2008. Previously, a fragment of the manuscript had been published in the Burroughs compendium, Word Virus. Grove Press published the first American edition of the novel on Nov. 1, 2008.
 Works, style, and innovations
- See also: Bibliography of Jack Kerouac
Kerouac is generally considered to be the father of the Beat
movement, although he actively disliked such labels, and, in
particular, regarded the subsequent Hippie movement with some disdain. Kerouac's method was heavily influenced by the prolific explosion of Jazz, especially the Bebop genre established by Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis, Thelonious Monk, and others. Later, Kerouac would include ideas he developed in his Buddhist studies, beginning with Gary Snyder. He called this style Spontaneous Prose, a literary technique akin to stream of consciousness. Although Kerouac’s prose were spontaneous and purportedly without edits, he primarily wrote autobiographical novels (or Roman à clef) based upon actual events from his life and the people with whom he interacted.
Jack Kerouac's poem in the center of his namesake
Many of his books exemplified this approach including On the Road, Visions of Cody, Visions of Gerard, Big Sur, and The Subterraneans.
The central features of this writing method were the ideas of breath
(borrowed from Jazz and from Buddhist meditation breathing),
improvising words over the inherent structures of mind and language,
and not editing a single word (much of his work was edited by Donald
Merriam Allen, a major figure in Beat Generation poetry who also edited
some of Ginsberg's work as well). Connected with his idea of breath was
the elimination of the period, preferring to use a long, connecting dash instead. As such, the phrases occurring between dashes might resemble improvisational jazz licks. When spoken, the words might take on a certain kind of rhythm, though none of it pre-meditated.
Kerouac greatly admired Gary Snyder, many of whose ideas influenced him. The Dharma Bums
contains accounts of a mountain climbing trip Kerouac took with Snyder,
and also whole paragraphs from letters Snyder had written to Kerouac. While living with Snyder outside Mill Valley, California in 1956, Kerouac was working on a book centering around Snyder, which he was thinking of calling Visions of Gary. (This eventually became Dharma Bums, which Kerouac described as "mostly about [Snyder]".) That summer, Kerouac took a job as a fire lookout on Desolation Peak in the North Cascades in Washington, after hearing Snyder's and Philip Whalen's accounts of their own lookout stints. Kerouac described the experience in his novel Desolation Angels.
He would go on for hours, often drunk, to friends and strangers
about his method. Allen Ginsberg, initially unimpressed, would later be
one of its great proponents, and indeed, he was apparently influenced
by Kerouac's free flowing prose method of writing in the composition of
his masterpiece "Howl". It was at about the time that Kerouac wrote The Subterraneans
that he was approached by Ginsberg and others to formally explicate
exactly how he wrote it, how he did Spontaneous Prose. Among the
writings he set down specifically about his Spontaneous Prose method,
the most concise would be Belief and Technique for Modern Prose, a list of thirty "essentials."
- Scribbled secret notebooks, and wild typewritten pages, for your own joy
- Submissive to everything, open, listening
- Try never get drunk outside your own house
- Be in love with your life
- Something that you feel will find its own form
- Be crazy dumbsaint of the mind
- Blow as deep as you want to blow
- Write what you want bottomless from bottom of the mind
- The unspeakable visions of the individual
- No time for poetry but exactly what is
- Visionary tics shivering in the chest
- In tranced fixation dreaming upon object before you
- Remove literary, grammatical and syntactical inhibition
- Like Proust be an old teahead of time
- Telling the true story of the world in interior monolog
- The jewel center of interest is the eye within the eye
- Write in recollection and amazement for yrself
- Work from pithy middle eye out, swimming in language sea
- Accept loss forever
- Believe in the holy contour of life
- Struggle to sketch the flow that already exists intact in mind
- Don't think of words when you stop but to see picture better
- Keep track of every day the date emblazoned in yr morning
- No fear or shame in the dignity of yr experience, language & knowledge
- Write for the world to read and see yr exact pictures of it
- Bookmovie is the movie in words, the visual American form
- In praise of Character in the Bleak inhuman Loneliness
- Composing wild, undisciplined, pure, coming in from under, crazier the better
- You're a Genius all the time
- Writer-Director of Earthly movies Sponsored & Angeled in Heaven
|"The only people for me are the mad ones, the ones who
are mad to live, mad to talk, mad to be saved, desirous of everything
at the same time, the ones who never yawn or say a commonplace thing,
but burn, burn, burn, like fabulous yellow Roman candles exploding like
spiders across the stars, and in the middle, you see the blue
center-light pop, and everybody goes ahh..."
—from On the Road
Some believed that at times Kerouac's writing technique did not produce lively or energetic prose. Truman Capote
famously said about Kerouac's work, "That's not writing, it's typing."
Despite such criticism, it should be kept in mind that what Kerouac
said about writing and how he wrote are sometimes seen to be separate.
According to Carolyn Cassady
and other people who knew him he rewrote and rewrote. Some claim his
own style was in no way spontaneous. However it should be taken into
account that throughout most of the '50s, Kerouac was constantly trying
to have his work published, and consequently he often revised and
re-arranged manuscripts in an often futile attempt to interest
publishers, as is clearly documented in his collected letters (which
are in themselves wonderful examples of his style). The Subterraneans and Visions of Cody are possibly the best examples of Kerouac's free-flowing spontaneous prose method.
Although the body of Kerouac's work has been published in English,
recent research has suggested that, aside from already known
correspondence and letters written to friends and family, he also wrote
unpublished works of fiction in French. A manuscript entitled Sur le Chemin (On the road) completed in five days in Mexico during December 1952 is a telling example of Kerouac's attempts at writing in Joual, a dialect typical of the French-Canadian working class of the time, which can be summarized as a form of expression utilising both old patois and modern French mixed with modern English words (windshield
being a modern English expression used casually by some French
Canadians even today). Set in 1935, mostly on the American east coast,
The short manuscript (50 pages), explores some of the recurring themes
of Kerouac's literature by way of a narrative very close to, if not
identical to the spoken word. It tells the story of a group of men,
including a young 13-year-old Kerouac to whom he refers to as Ti-Jean,
who agree to meet in New York. Ti-Jean and his father Leo (Kerouac's
father's real name) leave Boston by car, traveling to assist friends
looking for a place to stay in the city. The story actually follows two
cars and their passengers, one driving out of Denver and the other from
Boston until they eventually meet in a dingy bar in New York's
Chinatown. In it, Kerouac's "French" is written in a form which has
little regard for grammar or spelling, relying often on phonetics in
order to render an authentic reproduction of his French-Canadian
vernacular. Kerouac does not only use Joual
freely but frequently confuses grammatical word genders and verb
tenses, a phenomenon typical to the francophone speech pattern of the
assimilated French Canadians of the American east coast at the time.Even
though this work shares the same title as one of his best known English
novels, it is rather the original French version of a short text that
would later become Old bull in the Bowery (also unpublished) once translated to English prose by Kerouac himself. Sur le Chemin is Kerouac's second known French manuscript, the first being La nuit est ma Femme written in early 1951 and completed a few days before he began the original English version of On the Road.
Kerouac's technique was heavily influenced by Jazz, especially Bebop, and later, Buddhism, as well as the famous "Joan Anderson letter", authored by Neal Cassady.
The Diamond Sutra was the most important Buddhist text for Kerouac, and "probably one of the three or four most influential things he ever read." In 1955, he began an intensive study of this sutra, in a repeating weekly cycle, devoting one day to each of the six Pāramitās, and the seventh to the concluding passage on Samādhi. This was his sole reading on Desolation Peak, and he hoped by this means to condition his mind to emptiness, and possibly to have a vision.
Kerouac is considered by some as the "King of the Beats," a title with which Kerouac himself was deeply uncomfortable.
Kerouac's plainspeak manner of writing prose, as well as his nearly
long-form haiku style of poetry have inspired countless modern neo-beat
writers and artists, such as painter George Condo, poet and philosopher Roger Craton, and filmmaker John McNaughton.
In 1974 the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics was opened in his honor by Allen Ginsberg and Anne Waldman at Naropa University, a private Buddhist University in Boulder, Colorado.
The school offers an MFA in Writing & Poetics, a BA in Writing and
Literature, a Summer Writing Program, and MFA in Creative Writing. From 1978 to 1992, Joy Walsh published 28 issues of a magazine devoted to Kerouac, Moody Street Irregulars.
In 1997, the house on Clouser Avenue where The Dharma Bums was written was purchased by a newly formed non-profit group entitled The Jack Kerouac Writers in Residence Project of Orlando, Inc.
This group continues to this day to provide aspiring writers to live in
the same house Kerouac was inspired in, with room and board covered,
for three months.
In 2007, Kerouac was awarded a posthumous honorary degree from the University of Massachusetts Lowell.
- ^ Hopkins, Jerry (1991). No One Here Gets Out Alive. Plexus. pp. 387. ISBN 0859653064.
- ^ Berrigan, Ted (1968). "The Art of Fiction No. 43: Jack Kerouac, pg. 49" (PDF). The Paris Review. http://www.parisreview.com/media/4260_KEROUAC.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-05-14.
- ^ Miles, Barry (1998). Jack Kerouac:King of the Beats. Virgin. pp. 1–3. ISBN 0805060448.
- ^ Nicosia, Gerald (October 17 2004). "Real Kerouac". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2004/10/17/RVGU695CDD1.DTL. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- ^ Esposito, Carmine (July 18, 2005). "Kerouac, Jack". glbtq. http://www.glbtq.com/literature/kerouac_j.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- ^ Anctil, Gabriel (September 5, 2007). "Les 50 ans d'On the Road - Kerouac voulait écrire en français". Le Devoir. http://www.ledevoir.com/2007/09/05/155613.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- ^ "Hit The Road, Jack". The Smoking Gun. September 5, 2005. http://www.thesmokinggun.com/archive/0906052_jack_kerouac_1.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- ^ Fenton, Patrick (1997). "THE WIZARD OF OZONE PARK". Dharma Beat. http://www.wordsareimportant.com/ozonepark.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-27.
- ^ Kilgannon, Corey (November 10, 2005). "On the Road, the One Called Cross Bay Boulevard". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/10/nyregion/10ink.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- ^ Wolf, Stephen (November 21 - 27 2007). "An epic journey through the life of Jack Kerouac". The Villager. http://www.thevillager.com/villager_238/anepic.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-14.
- ^ a b Sante, Luc (August 19, 2007). "On the Road Again". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/19/books/review/Sante2-t-1.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-10.
- ^ a b Shea, Andrea (July 5, 2007). "Jack Kerouac's Famous Scroll, 'On the Road' Again". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14112461. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- ^ Dictionary of Literary Biography. "Jan Kerouac Biography". Dictionary of Literary Biography. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/jan-kerouac-dlb/. Retrieved on 2008-05-10.
- ^ "Wake Up! on Amazon.com". http://www.amazon.com/Wake-Up-Buddha-Jack-Kerouac/dp/0670019577/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1228158449&sr=1-1. Retrieved on 2008-12-01.
- ^ a b "Beat Generation Elders Meet to Praise Kerouac". New York Times. http://partners.nytimes.com/books/97/09/07/home/kerouac-conference.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-16.
- ^ Suiter 2002, pg. 237
- ^ Berrigan 1968, pg. 19-20
- ^ a b Suiter, John (2002). Poets on the Peaks Gary Snyder, Philip Whalen, and Jack Kerouac in the North Cascades. Counterpoint. pp. 229. ISBN 1582431485.
- ^ Suiter 2002, pg. 233
- ^ Suiter 2002, pp. 242-243
- ^ "Author Kerouac Dies; Led 'Beat Generation'". Daily Collegian. October 22, 1969. http://digitalnewspapers.libraries.psu.edu/Default/Skins/BasicArch/Client.asp?Skin=BasicArch&&AppName=2&enter=true&BaseHref=DCG/1969/10/22&EntityId=Ar00402. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- ^ "For Kerouac, Off the Road and Deep Into the Bottle, a Rest Stop on the Long Island Shore". The New York Times. December 31, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/31/nyregion/31kerouac.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-23.
- ^ "Uncensored 'On the Road' to be published". MSNBC. July 26, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14045410/. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- ^ Bignell, Paul & Johnson, Andrew (July 29, 2007). "On the Road (uncensored). Discovered: Kerouac 'cuts'". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/news/on-the-road-uncensored-discovered-kerouac-cuts-459446.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- ^ "New Kerouac-Burroughs book due out". United Press International. March 2, 2008. http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Entertainment/2008/03/02/new_kerouac-burroughs_book_due_out/2264/. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
- ^ Burroughs, William (1998). Word virus. Grove Press. pp. 576. ISBN 0802116299.
- ^ Suiter 2002, pg. 186
- ^ Suiter 2002, pg. 189
- ^ Suiter 2002, pg. 228
- ^ He
refers to it in a letter addressed to Neil Cassady (who is commonly
known as his inspiration for the character of Dean Moriarty) written on
January 10, 1953
- ^ The novel starts: Dans
l'mois d'Octobre 1935, y'arriva une machine du West, de Denver, sur le
chemin pour New York. Dans la machine était Dean Pomeray, un soûlon;
Dean Pomeray Jr., son ti fils de 9 ans et Rolfe Glendiver, son step
son, 24. C'était un vieille Model T Ford, toutes les trois avaient leux
yeux attachez sur le chemin dans la nuit à travers la windshield.
- ^ Cassady, Neal (1964). The First Third. Underground Press. pp. 387. OCLC 42789161.
- ^ Suiter 2002, pg. 191
- ^ Suiter 2002, pg. 210
- ^ "The Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics". Naropa University. http://www.naropa.edu/academics/graduate/writingpoetics/index.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-05-10.
- ^ "UMass Lowell Honors Jack Kerouac, U.S. Rep. John Lewis". University of Massachusetts. May 23, 2007. http://www.uml.edu/Media/PressReleases/Commencement_2007.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-29.
 Further reading
- Amburm, Ellis. Subterranean Kerouac: The Hidden Life of Jack Kerouac. St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-20677-1
- Amram, David. Offbeat: Collaborating with Kerouac. Thunder's Mouth Press, 2002.ISBN 1-56025-362-2
- Bartlett, Lee (ed.) The Beats: Essays in Criticism. London: McFarland, 1981.
- Beaulieu, Victor-Lévy. Jack Kerouac: A Chicken Essay. Coach House Press, 1975.
- Brooks, Ken. The Jack Kerouac Digest. Agenda, 2001.
- Cassady, Carolyn. Neal Cassady Collected Letters, 1944-1967. Penguin, 2004. ISBN 0-14-200217-8
- Cassady, Carolyn. Off the Road: Twenty Years with Cassady, Kerouac and Ginsberg. Black Spring Press, 2007.
- Challis, Chris. Quest for Kerouac. Faber & Faber, 1984.
- Charters, Ann. Kerouac. San Francisco: Straight Arrow Books, 1973.
- Charters, Ann (ed.) The Portable Beat Reader. New York: Penguin, 1992.
- Charters, Ann (ed.) The Portable Jack Kerouac. New York: Penguin, 1995.
- Christy, Jim. The Long Slow Death of Jack Kerouac. ECW Press, 1998.
- Clark, Tom. Jack Kerouac. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1984.
- Coolidge, Clark. Now It's Jazz: Writings on Kerouac & the Sounds. Living Batch, 1999.
- Cook, Bruce. The Beat Generation. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971. ISBN 0-684-12371-1
- Dagier, Patricia; Quéméner, Hervé. Jack Kerouac: Au Bout de la Route ... La Bretagne. An Here, 1999.
- Edington, Stephen. Kerouac's Nashua Roots. Transition, 1999.
- Ellis, R.J., Liar! Liar! Jack Kerouac - Novelist. Greenwich Exchange, 1999.
- French, Warren. Jack Kerouac. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1986.
- Gaffié, Luc. Jack Kerouac: The New Picaroon. Postillion Press, 1975.
- Giamo, Ben. "Kerouac, The Word and The Way". Southern Illinois U.P., 2000.
- Gifford, Barry. "Kerouac's Town". Creative Arts, 1977.
- Gifford, Barry; Lee, Lawrence. "Jack's Book: An Oral Biography of Jack Kerouac". St. Martin's Press, 1978. ISBN 0-14-005269-0
- Goldstein, N.W., "Kerouac's On the Road." Explicator 50.1. 1991.
- Haynes, Sarah, "An Exploration of Jack Kerouac's Buddhism:Text and Life"
- Heller, Christine Jack Kerouac and Gary Snyder: Chasing Zen Clouds
- Hemmer, Kurt. "Encyclopedia of Beat Literature: The Essential Guide to the Lives and Works of the Beat Writers". Facts on File, Inc., 2007.
- Hipkiss, Robert A., "Jack Kerouac: Prophet of the New Romanticism". Regents Press, 1976.
- Holmes, John Clellon. "Visitor: Jack Kerouac in Old Saybrook". tuvoti, 1981.
- Holmes, John Clellon. "Gone In October: Last Reflections on Jack Kerouac". Limberlost, 1985.
- Holton, Robert. "On the Road: Kerouac's Ragged American Journey". Twayne, 1999.
- Hrebeniak, Michael. "Action Writing: Jack Kerouac"s Wild Form," Carbondale IL., Southern Illinois UP, 2006.
- Huebel, Harry Russell. "Jack Kerouac". Boise State U.P., 1979.
- Hunt, Tim. "Kerouac's Crooked Road". Hamden: Archon Books, 1981.
- Jarvis, Charles. "Visions of Kerouac". Ithaca Press, 1973.
- Johnson, Joyce. "Minor Characters: A Young Woman's Coming-Of-Age in the Beat Orbit of Jack Kerouac". Penguin Books, 1999.
- Johnson, Joyce. "Door Wide Open: A Beat Love Affair in Letters, 1957-1958". Viking, 2000.
- Johnson, Ronna C., "You're Putting Me On: Jack Kerouac and the Postmodern Emergence". College Literature. 27.1 2000.
- Jones, James T., "A Map of Mexico City Blues: Jack Kerouac as Poet". Southern Illinois U.P., 1992.
- Jones, James T., "Jack Kerouac's Duluoz Legend". Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.
- Jones, Jim. "Use My Name: Kerouac's Forgotten Families". ECW Press, 1999.
- Jones, Jim. "Jack Kerouac's Nine Lives". Elbow/Cityful Press, 2001.
- Kealing, Bob. "Kerouac in Florida: Where the Road Ends". Arbiter Press, 2004.
- Kerouac, Joan Havery. "Nobody's Wife: The Smart Aleck and the King of the Beats". Creative Arts, 2000.
- Maher Jr., Paul. "Kerouac: The Definitive Biography". Lanham: Taylor Trade P, July 2004 ISBN 0-87833-305-3
- McNally, Dennis. "Desolate Angel: Jack Kerouac, the Beat Generation, and America". Da Capo Press, 2003. ISBN 0-306-81222-3
- Miles, Barry. "Jack Kerouac: King of the Beats". Virgin, 1998.
- Montgomery, John. "Jack Kerouac: A Memoir ...". Giligia Press, 1970.
- Montgomery, John. "Kerouac West Coast". Fels & Firn Press, 1976.
- Montgomery, John. "The Kerouac We Knew". Fels & Firn Press, 1982.
- Montgomery, John. "Kerouac at the Wild Boar". Fels & Firn Press, 1986.
- Mortenson, Erik R., "Beating Time: Configurations of Temporality in Jack Kerouac's On the Road". College Literature 28.3. 2001.
- Motier, Donald. "Gerard: The Influence of Jack Kerouac's Brother on his Life and Writing". Beaulieu Street Press, 1991.
- Nicosia, Gerald. "Memory Babe: A Critical Biography of Jack Kerouac". Berkeley: U of Cal P, 1994. ISBN 0-520-08569-8
- Parker, Brad. "Jack Kerouac: An Introduction". Lowell Corporation for the Humanities, 1989.
- Sandison, David. "Jack Kerouac". Hamlyn, 1999.
- Swartz, Omar. "The View From On the Road: The Rhetorical Vision of Jack Kerouac". Southern Illinois U.P., 1999.
- Swick, Thomas. "South Florida Sun Sentinel". February 22, 2004. Article: "Jack Kerouac in Orlando".
- Theado, Matt. "Understanding Jack Kerouac". Columbia: University of South Carolina, 2000.
- Turner, Steve. "Angelheaded Hipster: A Life of Jack Kerouac". Viking Books, 1996. ISBN 0-670-87038-2
- Walsh, Joy, editor. Moody Street Irregulars: A Jack Kerouac Newsletter
- Weinreich, Regina. "The Spontaneous Prose of Jack Kerouac". Southern Illinois U.P., 1987.
- Wills, David, editor. "Beatdom Magazine". Mauling Press, 2007.
 External links
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (see Copyrights for details).